University of Southern California
Rossier School of Education Excellence in Higher Education
 

Publications and Manuscripts

Cognitive Task Analysis

Adobe PDFClark, R. E., & Estes, F. (1998). Cognitive task analysis. International Journal of Educational Research, 25(5), 403-417.
Adobe PDFClark, R.E., Feldon, D., Van Merrienboer, J.J.G., Yates, K., and Early, S. (2008) Cognitive task analysis. In J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J.J.G. van Merrienboer, & M.P. Driscoll (Eds.). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Adobe PDFClark, R.E., Feldon, D., & Yates, K. (2011, April) Using Cognitive Task Analysis to capture expert knowledge and skills for research and instructional design. Workshop presented at the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
Adobe PDFYates, Kenneth A. (2007). Towards a taxonomy of cognitive task analysis methods: A search for cognition and task analysis interactions. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Cyber-learning, Games, and Media

Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (1999). Yin and yang cognitive motivational processes operating in multimedia learning environments. In J. van Merrienboer (Ed.) Cognition and multimedia design. Herleen, Netherlands: Open University Press.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2010). Cognitive and neuroscience research on learning and instruction: Recent insights about the impact of non-conscious knowledge on problem solving, higher order thinking skills and interactive cyber-learning environments. Presentation made at the the International Conference on Education Research (ICER), Seoul, South Korea.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2010). Recent neuroscience and cognitive research findings on cyber learning. Presentation at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Anaheim, CA.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2010). Surprising evidence about the motivational processes influencing cyber-learning. Presentation at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Anaheim, CA.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2011). Games for Instruction?. Presentation at the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
Adobe PDFClark, R.E., & Choi, S. (2005). Five design principles for experiments on the effects of animated pedagogical agents. Journal of Educational Computing Research,32(3), 209-223.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. & Feldon, D. F. (2005). Five common but questionable principles of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Guided Experiential Learning

Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2004). Design Document For A Guided Experiential Learning Course. Final report on contract DAAD 19-99-D-0046-0004 from TRADOC to the Institute for Creative Technology and the Rossier School of Education.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (October 2005). Guided Experiential Learning: Training Design and Evaluation. Invited address to the Secretary of The Army's Distance Learning Subcommittee. Williamsburg Virginia, October 5, 2005.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E., Yates, K., Early, S. & Moulton, K. (2010). An analysis of the failure of electronic media and discovery-based learning: Evidence for the performance benefits of guided training methods. In K. H. Silber, & R. Foshay, (Eds.). Handbook of training and improving workplace performance, Volume I: Instructional design and training delivery. Washington, DC: International Society for Performance Improvement.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E., Yates, K., Early, S. & Moulton, K. (2010). An analysis of the failure of electronic media and discovery-based learning: Evidence for the performance benefits of guided training methods. In K. H. Silber, & R. Foshay, (Eds.). Handbook of training and improving workplace performance, Volume I: Instructional design and training delivery. Washington, DC: International Society for Performance Improvement. (Large file (10MB) publisher proof)

Instructional Research Reviews

Adobe PDFClark, R.E. (1998). Motivating performance: Part 1 - Diagnosing and solving motivation problems. Performance Improvement, 37(8), 39-46.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2003). Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams. Performance Improvement, 42(3), 21-29.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2004). What works in distance learning: Motivation strategies. In H. O’Neil (Ed.), What works in distance learning: Guidelines (pp. 89-110). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishers.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2004). What works in distance learning: Instructional strategies. In H. O’Neil (Ed.) What works in distance learning: Guidelines. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishers.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2005). Research-tested team motivation strategies. Performance Improvement, 44(1), 13-16.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2006). Not knowing what we don't know: Reframing the importance of automated knowledge for educational research. In, Clarebout, G. and Elen, J. Avoiding Simplicity, confronting complexity: Advances in studying and designing (computer based) powerful learning environments. ISBN 90-77874-43-7. Sense Publishers, Rotterdam.
Adobe PDFClark, R.E. (2008). Resistance to change: Unconscious knowledge and the challenge of unlearning. In D.C. Berliner, & H. Kupermintz (Eds.), Changing institutions, environments, and people. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2009). How much and what type of guidance is optimal for learning from instruction? In S. Tobias, & T. M. Duffy (Eds.), Constructivist Theory Applied to Instruction: Success or Failure? (pp. 158-183). New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2009). Translating research into new instructional technologies for higher education: The active ingredient process. The Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 1(1).
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. (2011, July-August). The impact of non-conscious knowledge on educational technology research and design. Educational Technology.
Adobe PDFClark, R.E. and Clark, V. P. (2010), From Neo-Behaviorism to neuroscience: Perspectives on the origins and future contributions of cognitive load research. In J. Plass, R. Moreno, & R. Bruken (Eds.), Cognitive load: Theory and application. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E., & Estes, F. (1998). Technology or craft: What are we doing? Educational Technology, 38(5), 5-11.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E., & Estes, F. (1999). The development of authentic educational technologies. Educational Technology, 39(2), 5-16.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E., & Estes, F. (2000). A proposal for the collaborative development of authentic performance technology. Performance Improvement, 40(4), 48-53.
Adobe PDFClark, R. E. & Feldon, D. F. (2008). GEL, adaptable expertise and transfer of training. Report produced under contract sponsored by the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM).
Adobe PDFClark, R. E., Pugh, C. M., Yates, K. A. and Sullivan, M. (June 2008). The use of cognitive task analysis and simulators for after action review of medical events in Iraq. Technical Report 5-21- 2008 developed for the Center for Cognitive Technology, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California.
Adobe PDFCondly, S. J., Clark, R. E., & Stolvitch, H. D. (2003). The effects of incentives on workplace performance: A meta-analytic review of research studies. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 16(3), 7-24.
Adobe PDFFarrington, J., & Clark, R. E. (2000). Snake oil, science, and performance products. Performance Improvement, 39(10), 5-10.
Adobe PDFFeldon, D. F. (2007). Implications of research on expertise for curriculum and pedagogy. Educational Psychology Review.
Adobe PDFKirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based experiential and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. (See below.)
Adobe PDFSullivan, M. E., Ortega, A., Wasserberg, N., Kaufman, H., Nyquist, J., & Clark, R. E. (2008). Assessing the teaching of procedural skills: Can Cognitive Task Analysis add to our traditional teaching methods? The American Journal of Surgery, 195, 20-23.
Adobe PDFSweller, J., Clark, R. E., & Kirschner, P. (November 2010). Teaching general problem-solving skills Is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics. Docemust.
Adobe PDFVan Merrienboer, J. J. G., Clark, R. E., de Croock, M. B. M. (2002). Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID-Model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(2), 39-64.
Adobe PDFVelmahos, G., Toutouzas, K., Sillin, L., Chan, L., Clark, R. E. Theodorou, D., Maupin, F. (2004). Cognitive task analysis for teaching technical skills in an animate surgical skills laboratory. The American Journal of Surgery, 187, 114-119.

Direct Instruction versus Constructivism Controversy

Adobe PDFKirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based experiential and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.
Adobe PDFHmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., & Chinn, C. A. (2007). Scaffolding and achievement in problem-based and inquiry learning: A response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99-107.
Adobe PDFKuhn, D. (2007). Is direct instruction an answer to the right question? Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 109-113.
Adobe PDFSchmidt, H. G., Loyens, S. M. M., van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2007). Problem-based learning is compatible with human cognitive architecture: Commentary on Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 91-97.
Adobe PDFSweller, J., Kirschner, P. A., & Clark, R. E. (2007). Why minimally guided teaching techniques do not work: A reply to commentaries. Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 115-121.